Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Design Patterns

Design patterns are recurring solutions to software design problems you find again and again in real-world application development. Patterns are about design and interaction of objects, as well as providing a communication platform concerning elegant, reusable solutions to commonly encountered programming challenges. 

Model-view-presenter (MVP) 

Model-view-presenter (MVP) is a user interface design pattern engineered to facilitate automated unit testing and improve the separation of concerns in presentation logic. 
  • The model is an interface defining the data to be displayed or otherwise acted upon in the user interface. 
  • The view is an interface that displays data (the model) and routes user commands (events) to the presenter to act upon that data. 
  • The presenter acts upon the model and the view. It retrieves data from repositories (the model), persists it, and formats it for display in the view. 

Model–View–Controller (MVC) 

is a software architecture, currently considered as an architectural pattern used in software engineering. The pattern isolates "domain logic" (the application logic for the user) from input and presentation (GUI), permitting independent development, testing and maintenance of each.

The model is the domain-specific representation of the data upon which the application operates. Domain logic adds meaning to raw data (for example, calculating whether today is the user's birthday, or the totals, taxes, and shipping charges for shopping cart items). When a model changes its state, it notifies its associated views so they can be refreshed.

Many applications use a persistent storage mechanism such as a database to store data. MVC does not specifically mention the data access layer because it is understood to be underneath or encapsulated by the model. Models are not data access objects; however, in very simple apps that have little domain logic there is no real distinction to be made. Also, the ActiveRecord is an accepted design pattern which merges domain logic and data access code - a model which knows how to persist itself.

The view renders the model into a form suitable for interaction, typically a user interface element. Multiple views can exist for a single model for different purposes.

The controller receives input and initiates a response by making calls on model objects.

An MVC application may be a collection of model/view/controller triplets, each responsible for a different UI element.

MVC is often seen in web applications where the view is the HTML or XHTML generated by the app. The controller receives GET or POST input and decides what to do with it, handing over to domain objects (i.e. the model) that contain the business rules and know how to carry out specific tasks such as processing a new subscription.

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