Friday, October 22, 2010

Routing Protocols

  • Routers (or gateways) are special purpose machines on the Internet that determine the path for packets from source to destination
    • when a router receives a packet, inspects the destination address
    • looks up that address in a routing table
    • based on the contents of the table, forwards the packet to another router (or to its final destination if possible)
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
    • describes how routers exchange routing table information
    • uses hop-count as the metric of a path's cost
  • Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF)
    • more robust, scalable protocol than RIP
    • doesn't exchange entire tables, only updates changed links
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    • adjunct to IP, notifies sender (or other router) of abnormal events
    • e.g., unreachable host, net congestion

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